Bariatric surgery is a medically supervised weight loss procedure particularly designed for patients who suffer from obesity or morbid obesity. There are four main types of bariatric surgery, gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, adjustable gastric band, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, which limit food intake and, in some cases, alter the digestive systemic normal function. Given the advancements made in the field, weight loss surgery is currently conducted using minimally invasive techniques.
Surgery is often the last resource after the failure of other options such as diet and exercise, pre-packed meals or pharmacotherapy. The most appropriate method is a decision made by both the physician and patient, taking into consideration comorbidities, Body Mass Index and other personal characteristics. The main benefit of surgery is the quicker, easier weight loss, however, patients need to also make behavioral changes in their diet and activity levels as well.